TBI: Brain Anatomy

                                                       

Frontal Lobe

Functions:

  • Consciousness of environment
  • Reacting to our environment
  • Executive functioning and judgments
  • Controls emotions
  • Controls language usage
  • Word associations
  • Memory for motor activities and habits

    Limitations:

  • Some paralysis
  • Problems completing sequence tasks in correct order
  • Perseveration
  • Mood swings
  • Changes in personality and social behavior
  • Loss of abstract reasoning
  • Loss of flexibility of thinking
  • Inability to focus on tasks

Parietal Lobe

    Functions:

  • Visual perception
  • Tactile perception
  • Object manipulation
  • Integration of sensory information
  • Goal-directed voluntary movements

    Limitations:

  • Inability to name objects
  • Inability to write words
  • Poor hand-eye coordination
  • Confusing left-right orientation
  • Difficulty performing math calculations
  • Difficulty drawing
  • Poor visual perception
  • Problems with reading

Temporal Lobes

    Functions:

  • Auditory perception
  • Long-term memory
  • Some visual perception
  • Object categorization

    Limitations:

  • Difficulty remembering names and faces
  • Difficulty understanding spoken language
  • Lack of concentration
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Change in sexual interest
  • Persistent talking (damage to right lobe)

Occipital Lobe

    Functions:

  • Visual perception

    Limitations:

  • Visual defects (visual field cuts)
  • Difficulty recognizing colors
  • Hallucinations
  • Difficulty perceiving movement
  • Loss of academic skills (reading, writing)
  • Word blindness

Cerebellum

    Functions:

  • Coordination of voluntary movement
  • Balance and equilibrium
  • Some memory for reflex motor acts

    Limitations:

  • Loss of ability to coordinate fine movements
  • Loss of ability to walk
  • Inability to reach out and grab objects
  • Tremors and dizziness
  • Slurred speech
  • Inability to make rapid movements

Brain Stem

    Functions:

  • Breathing, swallowing
  • Heart rate, blood pressure
  • Body temperature
  • Alertness
  • Affects level of alertness
  • Ability to sleep
  • Balance

    Limitations:

  • Decreased breathing capacity
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Difficulty with organization
  • Problems with balance and movement
  • Dizziness and nausea
  • Sleeping difficulties